Thursday, February 12, 2004

.:I Can Still Do It!:.

I have an open shot at being Cum Laude, after churning out a performance of 93 in my previous long test for Political Science. Pretty amusing how I managed that, in spite of the fact that I was hard-pressed to answer her second question in the long-test and scrounged up merely less than a page of an answer. I’m glad it turned out that way, though. It’s been playing out quite well to my advantage the past few days, and I must say that I’m exceedingly happy about that…

In other subjects, I managed to recoup and answer Mr. Dy-Liaco’s quiz, the one I missed, by sitting in on one of his later classes. This proved to be quite good to me, because it simply helped me catch up and even out the odds for myself with his subject, although with a groupmate like the one I have right now, I don’t feel all too confident about our group report. At least, unlike last semester, there’s only one obvious problem groupmate for me and Elbert, so it’s not as bad as it was the last time out.

I’m not doing too shabbily at Philosophy right now, either. Of course, I have quite a few things to do as well to ensure my A, as well as send out an application as a Teaching Assistant by next week, for that matter. I shudder to think about the interview, though. Maybe I’d be exposed as overhyped (As I always believed I was.)? I don’t know. Every single time I run into Mr. Calassanz and he gives me that look and that laugh, I can’t help but shift uncomfortably, as though he’s thinking how na├»ve I am, or something to that effect. The man is intimidating. No question about it.

.:Now I Recall Why I’m At ADS:.

I confirmed once and for all that Ces Lao is out of the list. She ended up realizing that I baited her with my question, which is the funny thing about the whole setup. In spite of that, things are going fine, and long hair does suit her. It makes her look exceedingly good… ah, well.

There’s this girl named Cat who I’ve seen quite a lot of times, though I still have no idea if she passes through rule one or two… she’s Chinovela material, and she’s actually nice, though I think she’s a bit high-class, the way she carries herself. Not such a bad thing, come to think of it, but then, I realize that it still just doesn’t go too well with me, personally. Ah, well.

Mich was at her usual dry wit best, truncating all of my giddiness as the CP’s, PCP’s, and FCP’s simply kept walking in… Dione, for instance, as well as Rachel… ah, well.

I still can’t understand why Bianca Rodriguez thinks I’m gay, though… and even insists upon it. That’s really weird…

The talk was about SWS, but then, I really wasn’t too engrossed in the topic of elections. As soon as Rach left, it occurred to me that it was a good time for me to leave as well. She’s been a pretty busy girl, but she’s going to give herself some room to breathe come next schoolyear, simply because she really is spreading herself too thin at this point… ah, well. Good for her. I can’t help but feel a bit like an elder brother to her, though I guess I’m not really fulfilling any role like that in practice… still, I haven’t had a feeling like that in ages. It’s a good feeling, really.

.:Thesis Statements:.

Like always, I will answer the thesis statements for Philosophy. I’ll do my best to have the answers up by Saturday completely. I will sincerely appreciate any comments or entries into the guest map for those who would make use of this…

1. Every endeavor aims at some good, an end (telos) that is pursued in action,. The human being’s ultimate finality is, at the same time, the highest good of the human. According to the formal criteria for the good, the “highest good” of the human being is nothing other than well-being and flourishing (eudaimonia). In this context, Aristotle does not believe that the good is in the “realm beyond being” that Plato envisaged.

2. Aristotle understands eudaimonia to be a stable property that lasts through time, it is to flourish and be excellent. This is related to the human function, which, when exercised excellently, leads to an obedience to the logos. Thus, eudaimonia is always an expression of virtue (euadimonia).

3. An action is right if it is performed in accordance with virtue. In this case, Aristotle’s conception of the right is focused on ways of being human, rather than with specific actions. To be ethical, then, is to be in a certain state of character (hexis), for it involves a complete life of discernment. This state of character always seeks the mean (mesotes), defined by reference to the logos, in the face of changing circumstances. One should always be prudent in seeking this mean.

4. The virtuous man (phronimos) not only judges and does the right thing; he has no motivation not to do it (Annas). This means that he is in a settled state of character that is not incontinent and not only continent. The virtuous man exercises practical intelligence (phronesis), which is concerned not only with universals but with particulars as well. He achieves this character through habituation, for it is in exercising virtue consistently that he becomes virtuous.

5. Utilitarianism is a consequentialist morality. Mill states that, “Actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness; wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness.” Thus, utilitarianism is about maximizing the net expectable happiness for all who will be affected, that one ought to act in a way that will produce the greatest happiness for the greatest number.

6. Kant believes that morality should be based on pure reason alone. This means that the positive basis of morality should provide universal and necessary moral rules; rules that are strong enough to bind any rational being. The source of this morality is the good will for it is the unqualified good. The good will is good not because of what it accomplishes but because it is good in itself.

7. The basic motive of the good will is moral duty. This means that the actions that have true moral worth are done from duty and not just with duty. Thus, one must act morally because it is right to act morally; that is, one is motivated by what is right rather than by some other inclination.

8. Hypothetical imperatives “represent the practical necessity of possible action as a means for attaining something else that one wants” (Kant). This kind of imperative requires bribes, inducements, or pay-offs; that is, one needs to get “paid” in order to act morally. In contrast, categorical imperatives are objectively necessary in themselves. They command absolutely; they are absolute commands.

9. The four categorical imperatives-

a. “Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should be a universal law.”

b. “Act in such a way as to treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of another, always at the same time as an end and never as a means.”

c.Act in such a way that you are “fit to be a member in a possible kingdom of ends, for which [your] own nature has already determined [you] as an end in [yourself] and therefore as legislator in the kingdom of ends.”

10. For autonomy to be really autonomous, it is the law of morality that it must lay down for itself; for morality to be really moral, it must be based in a motivation that is autonomous.

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